Here is a link to the full image, which notes a fear of socialism. I wanted to highlight the constitutional changes.
from Wikipedia page on Pledge of Allegiance:
The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy (1855–1931), who was a Baptist minister, a Christian socialist, and the cousin of socialist utopian novelist Edward Bellamy (1850–1898). The original “Pledge of Allegiance” was published in the September 8 issue of the popular children’s magazine The Youth’s Companion as part of the National Public-School Celebration of Columbus Day, a celebration of the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus‘s arrival in the Americas. The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, as a campaign to instill the idea of American nationalism by selling flags to public schools and magazines to students.
Bellamy’s original Pledge read as follows:
- I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
- This history is also mentioned in the excellent book, Devil in the White City by Erik Larson. The Columbian Exposition of 1893 was not only a grand display for Chicago, it was seen as a unifying force for the entire country. The Pledge of Allegiance was promoted in public schools to intensify feelings of national unity. -Lauren